The Earth is a sphere, a three-dimensional shape. But most of the time, we work with two-dimensional media, including paper, computer displays, televisions, phone screens, whiteboards, etc. To represent the Earth on a two-dimensional medium, it is necessary to transform the curved shape of the Earth’s surface into a planar form using one of the many map projections.
All map projections necessarily introduce distortion into the results. Some flat-Earthers think that distortions are ‘evidence’ of failure of modern science to explain the world. They are wrong.
Continue reading “Map Projection and Distortion”
Flat-Earthers claim the logo of the United Nations is the so-called ‘flat-Earth map’. They are obviously wrong, the logo is a map of the Earth in the azimuthal equidistant projection. They picked the design because it shows all the countries of the Earth, and without emphasizing one over another.
Continue reading “United Nations Logo Conspiracy Theory”
James Cook made three significant voyages to the Pacific Ocean. Flat-Earthers often made their case with his second voyage. In this voyage, James Cook was tasked to find the hypothetical continent, the Terra Australis, that was predicted to be around the southern Pacific Ocean. In his second voyage, James Cook proved no such continent exists.
Flat-Earthers often take the second voyage of James Cook as ‘proof’ that Antarctica is not a continent, but a massive landmass encircling the flat-Earth. Their ‘proof’ is that Cook traveled more than 60000 miles, and 60000 miles is much farther than the circumference of Antarctica. They are wrong.
Continue reading “James Cook’s Second Voyage”
Flat-Earthers often point out to a ‘map’ that they think represents ‘the real Earth’. At a glance, it looks identical to the azimuthal equidistant map centered on the north pole. But both maps are in fact fundamentally different. The polar azimuthal equidistant map is not the so-called flat-Earth map.
Continue reading “The Polar Azimuthal Equidistant Map is NOT the Flat Earth Map”
Flat-Earthers think there hasn’t been anyone who has circumnavigated the Earth by traversing both the north pole and south pole in the process. All we have are explorers who have circumnavigated the Earth to the east or west, parallel to the equator; explorers like James Cook or Ferdinand Magellan. They don’t really have the choice, because if polar circumnavigation is possible, then the flat-Earth assumption falls flat.
But, like a lot of assumption in the flat-Earth community, it is simply not true. There are in fact many people who have done a polar circumnavigation, and the information can be easily found on the Internet.
Continue reading “Polar Circumnavigation”
Some flat-Earthers claim there is no non-stop long-haul flights between two locations in the southern hemisphere. Flights need to make a stop in a location in the northern hemisphere because the distance will be too far and such flight will traverse the northern hemisphere, or more accurately, the center of the Earth according to their model.
Continue reading “Non-Stop Long Haul Flights in the Southern Hemisphere”
“If we are in a location without a cellular signal, then GPS in our phones will not function perfectly. Conclusion: GPS utilizes signal from cell towers, not satellites.”
Some flat-earthers made the above conclusion. What they meant by ‘GPS’ is surely the app Google Maps or another similar app.
Continue reading “Google Maps, GPS and Cellular Signal Reception”
It is a mistake to take a straight line between two locations on a map, and consider that line the shortest distance between the two locations. With a very short distance —like within a city— it wouldn’t usually matter. But for long haul flights across continents, then it would matter, a lot.
Flat earthers are known to use this mistake —whether deliberately or not— as a ‘proof’ that the Earth is flat. A common case they would bring are emergency landings.
Continue reading “Emergency Landings and Flight Route”