A crow’s nest is a structure in the upper part of the ship, especially old-fashioned ones. It is used as a lookout point and positioned high above to increase visibility over the curvature of the Earth.
On the deck of a ship 4 m (13 ft) above the surface of the ocean, an observer can spot a 20 m (66 ft) high ship from at most ±25 km (16 mi). On the other hand, from a 35 m (115 ft) high crow’s nest, an observer will be able to spot the same ship from ±40 km (25 mi) away.
On modern ships, the role of a lookout is replaced by radars. And for the same reason, a radar is positioned in the upper part of a ship.
Continue reading “Crow’s Nest on Ships”
Long before GPS, navigators used a device called ‘sextant’ to determine the angle of a celestial body. From that data, the latitude of their current location can be determined.
This can only happen if the Earth is spherical.
Continue reading “Sextant: Determining Latitude from The Positions of the Stars”
James Cook made three significant voyages to the Pacific Ocean. Flat-Earthers often made their case with his second voyage. In this voyage, James Cook was tasked to find the hypothetical continent, the Terra Australis, that was predicted to be around the southern Pacific Ocean. In his second voyage, James Cook proved no such continent exists.
Flat-Earthers often take the second voyage of James Cook as ‘proof’ that Antarctica is not a continent, but a massive landmass encircling the flat-Earth. Their ‘proof’ is that Cook traveled more than 60000 miles, and 60000 miles is much farther than the circumference of Antarctica. They are wrong.
Continue reading “James Cook’s Second Voyage”
The GPS system is one-way. The satellites broadcast signals. GPS devices receive and process the signals to determine their location.
Flat-Earthers often point out the fact we were unable to locate the ill-fated MH370 as ‘evidence’ GPS doesn’t work and therefore doesn’t exist. They are wrong. GPS satellites never receive any signal from GPS devices, and it is not possible for them to locate MH370.
Continue reading “The MH370 Disaster and the Inability of the GPS System to Locate It”
Flat-Earthers often point out to a ‘map’ that they think represents ‘the real Earth’. At a glance, it looks identical to the azimuthal equidistant map centered on the north pole. But both maps are in fact fundamentally different. The polar azimuthal equidistant map is not the so-called flat-Earth map.
Continue reading “The Polar Azimuthal Equidistant Map is NOT the Flat Earth Map”
Flat-Earthers often claim that the fact Polaris not appearing to move is ‘evidence’ that the Earth is flat and stationary. If the Earth is a rotating sphere, then Polaris —as they say— should appear to be in motion.
In reality, Polaris is indeed moving across the sky. Though it is not something we can observe in a single night, or even in our entire lifetime.
Continue reading “Polaris: Our Current North Pole Star, But Not For Forever”
Flat-Earthers think there hasn’t been anyone who has circumnavigated the Earth by traversing both the north pole and south pole in the process. All we have are explorers who have circumnavigated the Earth to the east or west, parallel to the equator; explorers like James Cook or Ferdinand Magellan. They don’t really have the choice, because if polar circumnavigation is possible, then the flat-Earth assumption falls flat.
But, like a lot of assumption in the flat-Earth community, it is simply not true. There are in fact many people who have done a polar circumnavigation, and the information can be easily found on the Internet.
Continue reading “Polar Circumnavigation”
“If we are in a location without a cellular signal, then GPS in our phones will not function perfectly. Conclusion: GPS utilizes signal from cell towers, not satellites.”
Some flat-earthers made the above conclusion. What they meant by ‘GPS’ is surely the app Google Maps or another similar app.
Continue reading “Google Maps, GPS and Cellular Signal Reception”
To most flat-earthers, the Earth is stationary. Stars are light sources attached to the firmament (for some mysterious reason), and they rotate around Polaris (again, for some mysterious reason).
However, they are missing the fact that Polaris is never visible from the southern hemisphere. And furthermore, the southern stars also rotate around the south celestial pole.
Continue reading “Polaris – The North Star”