The Nile never flows uphill, or in other words, ascend to a location farther from sea level anywhere in the Nile basin.
Flat-Earthers often claim that if the Earth is spherical, then the Nile will have to flow uphill to overcome the curvature of the Earth. They are wrong.
Continue reading “The Earth is Spherical and The Nile Never Flows Uphill Anywhere”
There are two kinds of the horizon:
- Astronomical horizon: the horizon at the eye level.
- True horizon: the line that visually divides the Earth and the sky.
Because the Earth is a sphere, the true horizon always lies below the astronomical horizon, or the eye-level. The higher the observer, the larger the dip of the horizon.
Flat-Earthers claim there’s no dip of the horizon. They are wrong. It is not hard to observe the drop of the horizon and prove the curvature of the Earth.
Continue reading “The Dip of the Horizon”
A crow’s nest is a structure in the upper part of the ship, especially old-fashioned ones. It is used as a lookout point and positioned high above to increase visibility over the curvature of the Earth.
On the deck of a ship 4 m (13 ft) above the surface of the ocean, an observer can spot a 20 m (66 ft) high ship from at most ±25 km (16 mi). On the other hand, from a 35 m (115 ft) high crow’s nest, an observer will be able to spot the same ship from ±40 km (25 mi) away.
On modern ships, the role of a lookout is replaced by radars. And for the same reason, a radar is positioned in the upper part of a ship.
Continue reading “Crow’s Nest on Ships”
Before sunrise or after sunset, the Sun is below the horizon and not directly visible. But the sky and clouds above are illuminated because they are high above, and sunlight can reach them.
If there’s a mountain between the Sun and the clouds, it can cast a shadow on the clouds. The flat-Earth model assumes the Sun is always high above, and thus, this phenomenon cannot possibly occur in a flat-Earth.
The fact that a mountain can cast its shadow on clouds far above it is evidence that the Earth is spherical.
Continue reading “Shadow on Clouds”
The surface of the water in a glass of water is practically flat. Some flat-Earthers claim this is ‘evidence’ that the surface of the water is flat, and it will always be flat no matter how wide the container. They are wrong.
If the Earth is a sphere with the radius of 6371 km (3960 miles), then the surface of the water in a 10 cm (4 in) wide glass will have a bulge of 0.00000002 cm as the result of gravity, excluding other effects like the surface tension.
Continue reading “A Glass of Water”
Turning Torso is a 190 m (623 ft) high building in Malmö, Sweden. It is situated near the strait of Øresund. At the other side of the strait lies the city of Copenhagen, Denmark, only 15 km (9 miles) away from Malmö. Turning Torso has a distinctive segmented shape that is easy to recognize from far. And more importantly for our purposes, the segmented form is making it easy to judge its height from far.
Continue reading “Evidence of Curvature: Turning Torso Building, Malmö, Sweden”
We can’t directly observe and subjectively perceive the curvature of the Earth from a position close to the surface. And this matches the expectations in the spherical Earth model.
Flat-Earthers often take the fact we can see the curvature by standing on a beach as ‘evidence’ the curvature doesn’t exist. They are, once again, wrong.
Continue reading “Why We Can’t See Earth’s Curvature When Standing on a Beach”
A fisheye lens distorts images. It results in images having barrel distortions. In a fisheye lens, a straight line can appear curved. But some flat-Earthers don’t realize that the opposite is also true, a fisheye lens can easily make a curved line look straight.
Continue reading “Fisheye Lenses Can Make Curved Lines Appear Flat”
Atmospheric refraction causes a distant object to appear higher than its actual position. As a result, the object can be physically behind Earth’s curvature but is still visible because the light coming from it is refracted by the atmosphere.
There are many curvature calculators and simulation tools that don’t account for refraction. They would give us the correct results indicating the object’s physical positions but fail to show us the correct apparent position of the object when visually observed.
Flat-Earthers are often too happy with the calculator showing them the results they want to see and fail to see the reason for the discrepancy.
Continue reading “Curvature Calculators and Atmospheric Refraction”
The Mississippi River never flows uphill, or in other words, ascend to a location farther from sea level anywhere in the Mississippi River basin.
Flat-Earthers often claim that if the Earth is spherical, then the Mississippi River will have to flow uphill to overcome the curvature of the Earth. They are wrong.
Continue reading “The Earth is Spherical and The Mississippi River Never Flows Uphill Anywhere”