Gravity is the attraction between objects with mass. The attraction is greater if the objects are more massive. The shape of the object practically doesn’t affect the magnitude of the attraction provided the objects are spaced far enough.
Flat-Earthers like to perform the ball-and-water ‘experiment’. They spray water to a ball, then observe the water does not stick to the ball the same way seawater stays on the surface of the Earth. They would conclude that ‘gravity does not exist’. They are wrong. The spherical shape of the Earth (and the ball)does not cause gravity, Continue reading “The Ball and Water ‘Experiment’”
Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth’s layers and are a result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, massive landslides and large human-made explosions. Some types of seismic waves travel through the interior of the Earth and are detected by seismic stations on the other side of the Earth. By analyzing the types of waves that are received by seismic stations, we can determine the interior of the Earth.
Flat-Earthers are often seen saying that it is impossible to determine the interior of the Earth as nobody has gone there. They are wrong. Using seismology, we can determine the interior of the Earth without going there physically.
Continue reading “Seismic Waves: Mapping the Interior of the Earth”
The Nile never flows uphill, or in other words, ascend to a location farther from sea level anywhere in the Nile basin.
Flat-Earthers often claim that if the Earth is spherical, then the Nile will have to flow uphill to overcome the curvature of the Earth. They are wrong.
Continue reading “The Earth is Spherical and The Nile Never Flows Uphill Anywhere”
The surface of the water in a glass of water is practically flat. Some flat-Earthers claim this is ‘evidence’ that the surface of the water is flat, and it will always be flat no matter how wide the container. They are wrong.
If the Earth is a sphere with the radius of 6371 km (3960 miles), then the surface of the water in a 10 cm (4 in) wide glass will have a bulge of 0.00000002 cm as the result of gravity, excluding other effects like the surface tension.
Continue reading “A Glass of Water”
Some countries decided to partition their territories into a rectangular or square grid. But the Earth is spherical, and it is not possible to divide a spherical surface into a perfect rectangular grid while maintaining the perfect angles, distances, and areas.
To solve this problem, land surveyors implemented grid corrections. Every certain distance, parts of the grid are shifted away from each other. Therefore, an equal area in each division is maintained as much as possible by giving up an entirely lined up grid.
If the Earth is flat, it is not necessary to have this compromise. It would be possible to divide the land into a perfect square grid system.
Continue reading “Grid Corrections — How the Spherical Figure of the Earth Affects Land Partitioning”
The Earth is spherical, but not perfectly spherical. Its diameter is longer across the equator than between both poles. The shape is called ‘oblate spheroid’. The difference between both diameters is tiny, only about 0.33%. It is perfectly fine to say that the Earth is round or spherical.
Some flat-Earthers take this issue very seriously. They think if that’s the case, then we can’t say the Earth is spherical. They are wrong. If we can’t say the Earth is a sphere, then we can’t describe every other spherical object as spherical, because nothing is perfectly spherical.
Continue reading ““Earth is a Sphere” Semantic Games”
In a talk show, Neil deGrasse Tyson explained the figure of the Earth. He told the audience that the Earth is practically round, but it is a little farther from the center near the equator compared to the poles. And that in the southern parts, it is a bit farther from the center than in its northern regions. To illustrate the fact, Neil used the analogy ‘pear-shaped.’
Flat-Earthers really love to ridicule the ‘pear-shaped’ analogy. But they are mistaken. If they watch the entire unaltered video, they will find Neil explained the fact very clearly.
Continue reading “Neil deGrasse Tyson and His ‘Pear-Shaped’ Analogy”
The Mississippi River never flows uphill, or in other words, ascend to a location farther from sea level anywhere in the Mississippi River basin.
Flat-Earthers often claim that if the Earth is spherical, then the Mississippi River will have to flow uphill to overcome the curvature of the Earth. They are wrong.
Continue reading “The Earth is Spherical and The Mississippi River Never Flows Uphill Anywhere”
In 205 BC, Eratosthenes successfully determined the circumference of the Earth by measuring the length of the shadow cast by a rod. He did the measurement in Alexandria and timed it to coincidence when the Sun is directly overhead Syene.
2222 years after that, some flat-Earthers tried to refute the Eratosthenes experiment. They say the experiment can be applied to the flat-Earth model.
Continue reading “The Eratosthenes Experiment: Proving the Earth is Spherical”
Flat-Earthers mention the curvature of water a lot. According to them, the curve of the water can never be observed, and thus, the Earth is flat.
The problem with such an argument is that they usually conclude that from a very small amount of water. Water in a glass or a bucket will practically look flat. Not because there is no curvature due to Earth’s gravity, but because the water is in such small amount so that the curvature is minuscule and impossible to observe, let alone with the naked eye.
Continue reading “The Curvature of the Water Surface”