## Antipodal Flight Route: Jakarta–Bogota

Jakarta & Bogota are a near antipodal pair: the opposite points on Earth’s surface. We can fly from Jakarta in any direction and arrive at Bogota after traveling a similar distance, irrespective of the direction we leave Jakarta.

Any flight between an antipodal pair has a similar duration even though the different flights have different directions. This fact is only consistent with spherical Earth and cannot possibly be explained if Earth is flat.

For example, on a flat Earth, the flight route of Jakarta–Hong Kong–New York–Bogota is almost a straight route between the two locations. Meanwhile, the Jakarta–Sydney–Auckland–Santiago–Bogota route involves a massive detour, and it should take much longer than the aforementioned straight route. However, contrary to what is expected in the flat Earth model, both routes have a similar flight duration.

## Flight Durations

• Jakarta–Istanbul–Bogota: 12h 0m + 13h 45m = 25.75 hours
• Jakarta–Hong Kong–New York–Bogota: 5h 5m + 16h 0m + 5h 42m = 26.783 hours
• Jakarta–Tokyo–Houston–Bogota: 7h 35m + 12h 5m + 4h 55m = 24.583 hours
• Jakarta–Sydney–Auckland–Santiago–Bogota: 6h 55m + 3h 5m + 11h 0m + 6h 14m = 27.23 hours

## Sydney-Santiago Flight Route

The Sydney-Santiago flight route is one of the southernmost passenger flights. Such a route is impossible if Earth were flat and confirms that Earth is a sphere. It is easy to verify the existence of this route from flight websites.

On a flat Earth, this route should go across the United States. But the duration of the Sydney-Santiago route with a stop in the US is much longer than the non-stop route because Earth is a sphere, and this route does not go anywhere near the United States.

## Stars in the Southern Sky Prove Earth is a Rotating Sphere

If we look toward the south at night in any location in the southern hemisphere, we will see the same set of stars. We will see the stars rotating around the south celestial pole, in the Octans constellation, near the star Sigma Octantis.

The flat-Earth model cannot explain the phenomenon. Looking at the so-called ‘flat-Earth map,’ we should see another set of stars on a different location in the southern hemisphere. The reason is that the flat-Earth model is a false representation of the Earth.

## Wind & Jet Stream Excuses

Flight durations are a useful proxy for the distances between cities and easily debunk flat Earth. Flat-Earthers invented the “explanations” that the discrepancies of the flight durations in the flat Earth model are caused by winds and jet streams.

In reality, the required wind speed in such a scenario far exceeds the typical jet stream speed. Furthermore, the wind does not affect similar routes the same way in the flat Earth model. And we can easily account for the wind speed differences by averaging the flight durations in both directions. Continue reading “Wind & Jet Stream Excuses”

## Singapore–New York and Melbourne–Santiago Flight Routes

As of 2020, the Singapore–New York flight route is the world’s longest flight route, while the Melbourne–Santiago route is the most southernmost route. The real-world durations of these routes are only consistent if Earth is a sphere.

On the flat-Earth model, the Melbourne–Santiago flight route should be a longer flight than the Singapore–New York route. These routes’ real-world durations disprove the flat-Earth model.

## Sydney-Johannesburg Flight Route

The existence of the non-stop Sydney-Johannesburg flight route is only possible if Earth is a sphere. We can find that out by comparing its duration to the same route but with a stop.

There are other Sydney-Johannesburg flight routes, but with a stop, like in Dubai. Flat-Earthers use the existence of these routes to “prove” a flat Earth. In reality, it does not mean the non-stop route does not exist & it is not difficult to verify that the non-stop route exists.

## Flight Routes During the COVID-19 Pandemic

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many flight routes are being canceled, suspended, or cut down due to lockdowns, travel warnings, travel bans, or insufficient demand. These include flight routes that are impossible if Earth were flat.

Flat-Earthers looked for these routes, and when they could not find them, they use the lack of these routes to “prove” Earth is flat. In reality, they made these lookups during the COVID-19 pandemic, when most of these routes are not available or severely cut down.

## The December Solstice, When the Sun Illuminates an Impossible Area in the Flat-Earth Model

The December solstice occurs between the 20th and 22nd in December, which is when the Sun reaches its most southerly excursion. Around this time, the northern hemisphere experiences winter, and conversely, the southern hemisphere experiences summer.

If we try to plot the areas that are having daytime and nighttime on the so-called ‘flat-Earth map,’ the Sun would appear to illuminate an impossible area, similar to Batman’s bat-signal. This fact tells us that the ‘flat-Earth map’ does not conform to reality.