Shadows in Photographs Taken on the Moon

Flat-Earthers and other conspiracy theorists incorrectly claim that the shadows in photos taken on the Moon in the Apollo missions are inconsistent. In reality, it is just due to their confirmation biases, and we can easily explain how the shadows were formed.

The perspective effect can cause parallel shadows to appear angled to each other and converge to a distant point. Conspiracy theorists incorrectly claim that non-parallel shadows can only be caused by a nearby light source.

Uneven terrain can change the apparent length and the direction of the shadows. And it can also obscure shadows. To reach their conclusion, conspiracy theorists incorrectly used the assumption that the lunar surface is smooth and flat. In reality, the lunar surface is uneven and can alter the shape of the shadow.

Conspiracy theorists claim that multiple light sources were used to “fake” the moon landing. However, if multiple light sources were being used, they should produce multiple shadows on a single object, not a different shadow on different nearby objects.