Some flat-Earthers like to observe celestial phenomena and the positions of celestial objects. Sometimes, they insist such events cannot possibly happen if the Earth is a sphere orbiting the Sun, and took the wrong conclusion that the Earth must be flat.

We can try asking them the time of the occurrence and the position of the observer, then use Stellarium or similar applications to simulate it. If the result matches the observation, then they have nothing to complain about. Their confusion was only the result of their ignorance.

Continue reading “Stellarium”

Sunrays are Practically Parallel, but not Perfectly Parallel

The Sun emits sunrays to every direction. But as the Sun is very far, the sun rays that reach us are practically parallel. To an observer on Earth, the rays of light coming from the Sun form a maximum angle of about 0.53°. They are practically parallel, but not perfectly parallel.

Flat-Earthers often question the fact we say sun rays are parallel, but in any diagram of an eclipse, they are drawn at an angle. They merely confuse practicality with perfection. Sunrays are practically parallel, but they are not perfectly parallel.

Continue reading “Sunrays are Practically Parallel, but not Perfectly Parallel”

Sun Path

In the Northern hemisphere, the Sun appears to move to the right. In the Southern hemisphere, it appears to move to the left. During sunrise and sunset, the path of the Sun forms an angle that roughly corresponds to the latitude of the observer. This phenomenon occurs because observers on the different locations on Earth’s surface is not standing on the same plane.

The path of the Sun observed from many different locations on Earth’s surface is evidence of spherical Earth. This observation cannot possibly occur on a flat Earth.

Continue reading “Sun Path”

Observations of Sunspots From Multiple Locations on Earth

Sunspots are darker spots on the surface of the Sun. The location where sunspots appear is unpredictable, but the appearance of sunspots is always the same when observed from anywhere on Earth; only the orientation is different on different observer location. Observers on the opposite position on the Earth will see the sunspots reversed. The reason is that the Earth is a sphere. Any two observers on Earth’s surface are not standing on the same plane.

Some flat-Earthers have spatial awareness difficulties and present the difference of the appearance of sunspots as ‘evidence’ the Earth is not spherical. They are wrong. If the Sun were close as in the flat Earth model, we would see the different appearance of sunspots on the different observer location. In reality, everyone on Earth observes the same appearance of sunspots, only with the different orientation that corresponds to the position of the observer.

Sunset, Camera Zooming, and Autoexposure

There are videos showing the sun to appear to set, but after the camera is zoomed in, the sun is still above the horizon. The reason is that the camera’s autoexposure system is constantly adjusting the exposure, and in such scenes, there’s a difference in overall brightness before and after zooming in.

Flat-Earthers are taking such videos as ‘evidence’ of a receding sun. They are wrong. This is merely a matter of photography. In reality, the sun is not receding, and it has the same angular size throughout the day.

Continue reading “Sunset, Camera Zooming, and Autoexposure”

Geometry of a Full Moon

Some people are confused that a full moon is visible all night, and think if the full moon is the result of the opposition of the moon from the sun, then a full moon should be visible only at midnight.

Flat-Earthers who have such spatial visualization problem take a step further and use it as ‘evidence’ that the Earth is not a sphere. They are wrong. The full moon phenomenon can easily be explained in the spherical Earth model.

Continue reading “Geometry of a Full Moon”

The Angle of a Shadow During Equinox

During an equinox (March 20 and September 22-23), the Sun is directly above the equator. If we are on the equator, an upright stick will not have a shadow in the middle of the day.

On any other location, the angle between the stick and the direction of sunlight will be the same as the observer’s latitude.

This fact can only occur if the Earth is a sphere, and only if the Sun is very far relative to the size of the Earth.

Continue reading “The Angle of a Shadow During Equinox”

The Direction to the Sun vs the Position of the Sun

Featured Video Play Icon

If we were to observe the direction to the Sun over the entire course of the day, on multiple locations on Earth’s surface, and then plot the results on the so-called flat-Earth map; then they would not consistently point to the position of the Sun that is calculated from its location on such map.

This fact happens because the flat-Earth map is not the correct description of the real Earth.

Continue reading “The Direction to the Sun vs the Position of the Sun”

Temperature Variations at the Different Times During the Day

The variation of the temperature at the different times during the day is the result of two primary causes: the difference of the thickness of the atmosphere the sunlight must traverse to reach the surface; and the change of the concentration of sunlight over the same surface area of the Earth.

Flat-Earthers claim that the change in Sun’s distance caused such a difference in temperature and that it can only be explained in a flat Earth. They are wrong.

Continue reading “Temperature Variations at the Different Times During the Day”

Total Lunar Eclipse, Drawn to Scale

Any diagram showing two or more celestial bodies is almost never drawn in the correct scale. The reason is that in most cases, any two celestial bodies are spaced too far away relative to their sizes. It is just not possible to draw them in the correct scale and still effectively describes what we want to explain. We don’t have much choice other than drawing them not to scale.

The perpetrators of flat-Earth disseminate the allegations that the diagrams were drawn not to scale because of evil intentions, and not because of legitimate technical reasons. Some people don’t understand this and fell victim to flat-Earth indoctrination.

Continue reading “Total Lunar Eclipse, Drawn to Scale”