The Sagnac effect occurs to a pair of light beams traveling in a circuit in the opposite direction. If the circuit itself is rotating, then the beams will complete the circuit in different duration. The effect was first demonstrated by Georges Sagnac in 1913.
After discovering this effect, Sagnac incorrectly used the results as proof of the aether’s existence, and today’s flat-Earthers use it as “evidence” of stationary Earth. In reality, Sagnac was not aware that the effect is consistent with Einstein’s theory of relativity. And if the effect really proved aether, then optical gyroscopes are impossible.
The Sagnac effect is used as the basis of optical gyroscopes, including fiber-optic gyroscopes and ring-laser gyroscopes. In an optical gyroscope, a pair of light beams are made to travel in a circuit in the opposite direction. Because light travels at a constant speed, irrespective of the transmitter’s speed, then if the gyroscope is rotated, a beam of light will complete the circuit sooner than the other. From the difference, we can measure the rotating motion of the gyroscope.
Airy’s Failure was an experiment performed in 1871 in which Sir George Biddell Airy failed to confirm the aether theory by measuring stellar aberration. The phenomenon of stellar aberration, in itself, was the first direct evidence of Earth’s motion around the sun.
Flat-Earthers claim that the “failure” in “Airy’s Failure” is the failure of proving the motion of Earth. In reality, the experiment aimed to confirm the aether theory. The “failure” was in proving the aether theory. The experiment relied on the already accepted knowledge that Earth is in orbit around the sun.
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Gravity is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy are brought toward each other. In 1687, Isaac Newton explained the phenomenon as a force, which was formulated in Newton’s law of universal gravitation.
Flat-Earthers insist that gravity does not exist. But this is only a result of a mere ignorance on how gravity works. Everything in our lives is consistent with what is explained in Newton’s law of universal gravitation.
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Classical physics —like Newton’s law of motion, and Newton’s law of universal gravitation— has been superseded by Special Relativity, General Relativity, and Quantum Mechanics. But it doesn’t mean classical physics is wrong. Classical physics is still applicable when the parameters approach common, terrestrial values we use every day.
Pseudoscientists —including flat-Earthers— often misunderstood this and take the fact that classical physics is still being taught in schools as ‘proof’ of deception and the failure of modern science to explain the world. They are wrong.
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Flat-Earthers quoted Einstein’s statement out of context to give the appearance that he gave credence to the notion that Earth is stationary. In reality, Einstein never said the Earth is stationary.
The quote came from his Kyoto address “How I created the theory of relativity,” December 14, 1922.
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