Many Islamic rituals rely on the observations of astronomical events. Presently, many such observations are supplanted by calculations involving the knowledge that Earth is a sphere. These calculations give the same consistent results as direct observations on all locations on Earth for several centuries already. The fact confirms that Earth is indeed a sphere.
Some Muslims believe in flat Earth and then try to integrate the belief that Earth is flat into their religion. It results in an interesting phenomenon that they perform their religious rituals using the results of spherical Earth calculations but have severe difficulties accepting the fact. It can result in a spectacular cognitive dissonance after being made aware of it.
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Muslims perform their prayers by facing the Qibla —or the direction to the Kaaba in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The Qibla direction is traditionally determined from the direction to the Sun when the Sun is directly overhead the Kaaba. If the Sun is visible during that time, it will indicate the direction of the Qibla.
If the observation results are drawn on the so-called ‘flat-Earth map,’ the Qibla will not consistently point to the Kaaba. Only calculations using the spherical Earth model will give us consistent results that agree with centuries of observation from various locations on Earth. The Qibla proves Earth is a sphere.
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