Sometimes, we can see clouds appearing as if they are behind the Sun or the Moon. Obviously, this is merely an illusion. But some flat-Earthers regard this as ‘evidence’ that the Sun and the Moon are close and apparently closer than some clouds. They are wrong.
In each day, we can observe stars drift about 1° in their movement around the celestial pole. In a month, they will appear to have moved about 30° when observed at the same time in the night. And in a year, stars are back to their original positions precisely a year before. This annual stellar motion is the basis for the calendar system we are using.
Some flat-Earthers think we see the same star constellations every night. From this assumption, they would conclude the Earth is stationary. But their claim is demonstrably wrong. Continue reading “Annual Stellar Motion: Evidence of Earth’s Orbit Around the Sun”
All the seas and oceans around the world are connected. Water can freely flow between them. That’s the reason tide can occur on them.
On the other hand, lakes are isolated from one to another. Water cannot freely flow between them. That is the reason tide in meaningful amount cannot occur on lakes or any other bodies of water.
Stellar parallax is the apparent shift of the position of any nearby star against the background of distant stars. It is the result of Earth’s orbital motion around the Sun. It is so small and hard to observe. Successful measurement of stellar parallax was done only after the 19th century.
Some flat-Earthers presume as if stellar parallax has not been successfully observed, and use it is ‘evidence’ the Earth is stationary. They are wrong.
If we can’t see a distant ship, then it is because of one of these reasons:
- Our eyes have limited angular resolution and are unable to resolve the ship at that distance.
- The atmospheric condition is limiting our visibility.
- The curvature of the Earth obscures the ship.
Flat-Earthers are keen to demonstrate that a previously invisible ship at a distance can be made visible by zooming in. They take this fact as ‘proof’ that the curvature of the Earth doesn’t exist. They are wrong. The curvature of the Earth is not the only reason a distant object is not visible.
During a total solar eclipse, the Moon is right between the Earth and the Sun. Thus, the near side of the Moon does not receive any sunlight. But while it is dark, it still gets some light reflected by the surface of the Earth. This phenomenon is called Earthshine.
Some flat-Earthers argue that a solar eclipse is not caused by the blocking of the Sun by the Moon, but by another, mysterious celestial body. The reason is that eclipses are incompatible with their beliefs about the motion of the Sun and the Moon.
Earthshine proves that they are wrong.
The argument from incredulity occurs if someone refuses to accept an argument simply because he cannot personally understand it. This is a logical fallacy very frequently used by flat-Earthers.
In photography, the starburst effect gives the illusion of light rays from strong light sources in an image. The effect happens when the lens’ aperture is not a perfect circle, and it gets more pronounced under a narrower aperture.
Flat-Earthers often find themselves looking for any peculiarity —no matter how small or unbelievable— to discredit any picture they deem unacceptable to their misguided causes. One of this peculiarity is the starburst effect.
Aether was the hypothetical material that fills the region of space. It was assumed to be the medium that allows light and gravity to propagate in space. Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s, some experiments were carried out to prove if the aether exists.
Flat-Earthers (and geocentrists alike) often use the results of these experiments to support their case that the Earth is stationary. But they are wrong. These experiments were conducted to prove if the Aether theory, or if one of its competing hypotheses —like the Special Relativity— better explains reality.
In 1870, Alfred Russell Wallace successfully demonstrated the curvature of the Earth to answer the challenge put forward by a flat-Earther, John Hampden.
Wi-Fi is one of the most common ways of getting connected to the Internet. Practically all short-range wireless network use WiFi. Using specialized equipment, Wi-Fi is usable over a very long distance, even over hundreds of miles.
When designing a long-range Wi-Fi link, we must account for the curvature of the Earth.
A hot air balloon rises because it has buoyancy. Buoyancy is the upward force that is exerted on the trapped hot air because its density is lower than the surrounding air. If buoyancy is greater than the force of gravity — or the weight of the balloon—, then the balloon will rise.
The basic physics escape most flat-Earthers. To them, the fact that a hot-air balloon rises is an ‘evidence’ that gravity does not exist. They believe things go up or down because of density. They are wrong.
Flat-Earthers often point out to a ‘map’ that they think represents ‘the real Earth’. At a glance, it looks identical to the azimuthal equidistant map centered on the north pole. But both maps are in fact fundamentally different. The polar azimuthal equidistant map is not the so-called flat-Earth map.
The film ‘Dark Side of the Moon’ is a mockumentary. It is fictional but presented as if it is a real documentary. The film features guests like Donald Rumsfield, Henry Kissinger, Alexander Haig, Vernon Walters, Buzz Aldrin, and Stanley Kubrick’s wife. In the film, they all pretend that the Moon landings were faked, and created in a studio by Stanley Kubrick.
There are many doctored versions of the film circulated on the Internet. Usually, the ‘giveaways’ are cut to make the film more believable. Then, the film is presented as ‘evidence’ that the Moon landings did not happen. Unfortunately, many believe these edited versions of the film and don’t realize the events in the movie are entirely fictional.
An ice dome is one of many forms a glacier can take. It is an upright ice surface in the higher altitude portions of an ice cap or an ice sheet. There are many such features found on icy terrain. And Antarctica is no exception.
When an ice dome gets mentioned, flat-Earthers often confuse it with the mythical dome enclosing the Earth as described in most flat Earth model. No such dome actually exists.
Archimedes is a scientist from 3rd century BC. He is best known for the Archimedes’ Principle which explains buoyancy. He also contributed to many scientific discoveries and inventions.
But did you know that Archimedes explained the Archimedes’ principle using the spherical Earth model?
The Earth is not perfectly spherical. Its diameter is longer across the equator than between the poles; it is oblate spheroid. This fact is often questioned by flat-Earthers. According to them, every picture of the Earth from space shows the Earth as a perfect sphere, and never as an oblate spheroid. Then they would present it as ‘evidence’ that scientists have been lying to us.
But it is actually possible to determine that the Earth is in fact oblate spheroid from pictures of the Earth taken from space.
A page on NASA’s website is at the center of the attention of flat-Earth followers. It is a page created by Fred ‘Mr. Eclipse’ Espenak, explaining the Saros cycle. Here’s the first paragraph from the page:
The periodicity and recurrence of eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). It was known to the Chaldeans as a period when lunar eclipses seem to repeat themselves, but the cycle is applicable to solar eclipses as well.
After they discovered that the said ‘Chaldeans’ was a civilization from 25 centuries ago, they got excited and jumped to the conclusion that NASA used ancient technology to predict eclipses, and thus eclipses can’t be predicted from the motion of the Sun, Earth and Moon themselves.
Like other similar cases, this tells us more about the flat-Earthers themselves than about NASA.
Ever seen a video where a flat-Earther tries to demonstrate that a distant object that appears to be behind an obstacle can be brought back into view simply by zooming in? He would then conclude the same thing would happen when zooming in to a distant ship, and the reason a distant ship is not visible is not the curvature of the Earth.
Well, no. The real reason why the object in that experiment can be seen after zooming in is that the obstacle is close, and there’s difference in the camera’s entrance pupil size when the zoom changes. For a camera that has very long zoom range —like the Nikon P900—, the difference can be very dramatic.
Flat-Earthers often claim that the fact Polaris not appearing to move is ‘evidence’ that the Earth is flat and stationary. If the Earth is a rotating sphere, then Polaris —as they say— should appear to be in motion.
In reality, Polaris is indeed moving across the sky. Though it is not something we can observe in a single night, or even in our entire lifetime.