## Sextant: Determining Latitude from The Positions of the Stars

Long before GPS, navigators used a device called ‘sextant’ to determine the angle of a celestial body. From that data, the latitude of their current location can be determined.

This can only happen if the Earth is spherical.

## The Length of Daytime and Nights in the Flat Earth Model

The majority of the flat Earth models place the Arctic Ocean in the middle of the flat Earth, and Antarctica at the edge of it. The Sun is pictured floating and moving in a circle above it. The Sun’s area of light is limited to a circular area below it, like a spotlight.

A problem: a simple observation of day and night cycles in a different area of the world cannot be explained in this flat Earth model.

## Cyclonic Rotation: The Direction a Cyclone or Hurricane Rotates

A cyclone or hurricane rotates in a different direction depending on which hemisphere it occurs. A cyclone rotates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

The phenomenon happens because of the Coriolis effect, which in turn occurs because the Earth is spherical and rotating.

## The Sydney-Santiago Flight Route: An Impossible Route on the Flat-Earth Model

We can use the duration of a flight route to roughly determine the distance between two locations. Then, we can use this to determine which model better represents reality: the flat-Earth model or the spherical Earth model.

In the flat-Earth Model, the distances between two locations become more unreasonable as we go further south. To illustrate this fact, we can use the flight route of Sydney-Santiago to help us with the calculations. This flight route is one of the most southernly flight routes. Continue reading “The Sydney-Santiago Flight Route: An Impossible Route on the Flat-Earth Model”

## Non-Stop Long-Haul Flight Routes in the Southern Hemisphere

There are many non-stop long-haul flight routes between two locations in the southern hemisphere, all without crossing the northern hemisphere. These routes can only exist if Earth is a sphere.

Some flat-Earthers claim there is no non-stop long-haul flights between two locations in the southern hemisphere. Flights need to make a stop in a location in the northern hemisphere because the distance will be too far and such flight will traverse the northern hemisphere, or more accurately, the center of the Earth according to their model. They are wrong. There are many such flight routes.

## Star Trail: Evidence the Earth is a Sphere and Rotating Around Its Axis

In the northern hemisphere, if we look at the sky to the north, we can observe stars rotate counter-clockwise around a point. This axis of rotation is not visible from observers in the southern hemisphere.

On the other hand, in the southern hemisphere, if we look at the sky to the south, we can observe stars rotate in the opposite direction. Conversely, this axis of rotation is not visible from observers in the northern hemisphere.

This motion of the stars cannot possibly happen in a flat-Earth. The motion of the stars is a proof that the Earth is round and rotates around its axis.

## Midnight Sun in Both Polar Regions Proves Spherical Earth

Midnight Sun is a phenomenon where the Sun remains visible at midnight. This phenomenon occurs in the summer months north of Arctic Circle, and south of the Antarctic Circle.

The apparent motion of the Sun in both polar regions is different. In the north polar region, the Sun moves from left to right. On the other hand, in Antarctica, the Sun moves from right to left. There is no explanation other than that Earth is a sphere.

## Polaris – The North Star

To most flat-earthers, the Earth is stationary. Stars are light sources attached to the firmament (for some mysterious reason), and they rotate around Polaris (again, for some mysterious reason).

However, they are missing the fact that Polaris is never visible from the southern hemisphere. And furthermore, the southern stars also rotate around the south celestial pole.